Before 1980 Drinking Water in the United States was determined “Safe” when EPA – mandated water tests resulted in levels at or below the Maximum Contaminant Levels proscribed at that time. 

Because studies from 2012, – 2016 show that parts per trillion of toxic compounds are enough to initiate disease at the cellular level it has been difficult to define “safe levels”.  Coupled with the unwillingness of the United States Congress to vote in changes suggested by  EPA studies since 1995, the literature has turned to “Acceptable  Risk” as a means of quantifying morbidity (illness from water toxins) and mortality from water-borne disease. 

When water districts  in the USA – over 150,000 public water utilities – examine water for potability – the standards are 80 , 60 and 10 parts per billion for methanes, acids and endocrine disrupting compounds respectively.  These levels are 1000 times to high according to standards now being set in many European countries. 


  • – to be concluded –